Inspiring Fitness Girls of Instagram: Sophia Monique

No more cardio and food fasting if you care about those gains! Fasting (all approaches) can be detrimental to athletic gains. First, meals in close proximity to your workout are essential for optimal performance, recovery, and muscle gain. Second, increased hunger sensations may hinder compliance as well as increase the potential to over-consume food when it becomes available. Despite the common belief that you will burn more fat if you exercise while fasted, doing aerobic exercise in the fasted state is not recommended. In fact, Performing aerobic exercise after consuming carbohydrates does not hinder fat oxidation Performing aerobic exercise fasted will also encourage loss of lean muscle mass, since muscle will be burned for fuel Exercising in a fasted state often does not lead to an optimal workout. In contrast, having readily available energy will allow optimal performance which will burn more calories overall and lead to the highest gains Exercising in the fasted state vs. fed state decreases static and dynamic balance and can increase the risk of injury References: Aragon, A A, and B J Schoenfeld. 2013. “Nutrient Timing Revisited: Is There a Post-Exercise Anabolic Window?” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 10 (1) (January): 5. Febbraio, M A, et al. 2000. “Effects of Carbohydrate Ingestion before and during Exercise on Glucose Kinetics and Performance.” Journal of Applied Physiology 89 (6) (December): 2220–2226. Hawks, S R, and J Gast. 1998. “Weight Loss Management: A Path Lit Darkly.” Health Education & Behavior 25 (3) (June 1): 371–382. Johnson, S, and K Leck. 2010. “The Effects of Dietary Fasting on Physical Balance among Healthy Young Women.” Nutrition Journal 9 (January): 18. Lemon, P W, and J P Mullin. 1980. “Effect of Initial Muscle Glycogen Levels on Protein Catabolism during Exercise.” Journal of Applied Physiology 48 (4) (April): 624–629. Loy, S F, et al. 1986. “Effects of 24-Hour at Two Different Fast on Cycling Endurance Time Intensities.” Journal of Applied Physiology 61 (2): 654–659. Schoenfeld, B. 2011. “Does Cardio after an Overnight Fast Maximize Fat Loss?” Strength and Conditioning Journal 33 (1) (February): 23–25

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? @leelhgfx Do you want to add thickness to your thighs? Build your hamstrings and you will start to see a nice curve take shape behind your quads. It is possible to have thick legs without having huge quads. ——————————————– The fitness industry for years has assumed the hamstring muscle group is comprised of fast twitched muscle fibers but after reviewing the research on the topic it appears the hamstrings are a combination of fast and slow twitch fibers. ——————————————– What does this mean? As a rule of thumb, slow twitch muscle fibers are stimulated by using lighter weight, higher repetitions and slower speed (or time under tension). Fast twitch muscle fibers are better stimulated by the opposite so heavy weight, and less reps. ——————————————– Because the industry as a whole has assumed the hamstring group is comprised of only fast twitch fibers, the advice has always been to lift heavy with low reps. ——————————————– But science says this: one study shows 67% fast twitch composition, while the other five show 55%, 51%, 50%, 44-54%, and 43%. Based on this data, at this point in time we cannot say that the hamstrings are primarily fast twitch. It appears they are an even mix between fast and slow twitch. ——————————————————————- Here’s a workout I did this morning. If you’d like to try, increase your weight each set and your last set of 4 reps should be very heavy to perform. Rest between sets for no more than 60 seconds. 1) Sitting leg curl 4 sets x 15 reps, 12, 10, 8 2) Super set the above with single leg standing leg curl 4 sets x 15 reps, 12, 10, 8 3) Dumbell romanian deadlift 4 sets x 8 reps, 6, 4, 4 Try this form: feet are closer together than should width apart and point the toes outwards at an angle. 4) Single leg romanian deadlift 4 sets x 8 reps, 6, 4, 4 There are various ways to do this one too. I held a dumbbell in each hand. 5) Finish out with laying leg curl 3 sets x 15 reps, 15, 15 References: Andersen, L. L., et al.(2005). The effect of resistance training combined with timed inge

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Leg Press The leg press is one of the most common exercises performed and has been studied numerous times. One study looked at feet positioning, and how this impacted muscle activity. Fourteen women performed 3 leg press (LP) exercises: 45 degrees LP, high LP (feet positioned higher than 45 degrees) and low LP at 40% and 80% of the 1 repetition max. The results indicate at moderate effort levels, the calf and the main quad (rectus femoris) muscles were most active during the 45LP and LPL than the HLP. At the higher effort level (more weight), the full quad was more dominate during the LPL than the HPL. The glutes were most active in the HLP than the LPL. In essence, if your goal is to target your glutes go for the higher feet positioning (above 45 degrees) leg press. If your goal is to target your quads, position your feet lower than 45 degrees. Happy Lifting! Reference: E. MARCZWSKI DA SILVA et al. Analysis of Muscle Activation During Different Leg Press Exercises at Submaximum Effort Levels. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 22(4):1059-65.

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Photo @leelhgfx Does HIIT (high intensity interval training) burn more calories than LISS (low intensity steady state)? Yes over the long run, but the answer requires an explanation. Let’s use sprinting as an example for HIIT, and briskly walking on the treadmill for LISS. I see people doing hours a week of LISS at my local gym. I’m not sure if they’re aware that the body adjusts to low intensity exercise. After a while of doing LISS your body will not burn as many calories as it once used to when you did the same cardio. Because LISS doesn’t have long term benefits (calorie-wise) you can essentially cut out 200 calories of food for the day and you’d experience the same weight loss as you would eating those 200 calories and briskly walking on the treadmill for an hour. But if you completed sprint intervals for 25 minutes, your body would see benefits outside of just the calories burned during the anaerobic bout. Your body would continue to expend energy over the following 24 hour period. This is because HIIT overloads the muscle and is technically weight lifting. Sprinting activates hip flexion and knee extension – both great leg workouts. By activating muscle fibers you are priming your body for growth. And of course muscle growth —> higher metabolism and increased fat loss while at rest. Reference: Wilson, et al. Concurrent Training: A Meta Analysis Examining Interference of Aerobic and Resistance Exercise. University of Tampa, FL. J Strength Conditioning.

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Don’t skip adductor and abductor exercises on your glute and/or leg days (depending on your split) ??

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Is this what #humpday is all about? ? Drinking 3+ cups of green tea daily has numerous health benefits, including a boost to one’s metabolism (and weight loss). Traditional Chinese and Indian medicine use green tea as a stimulant, a diuretic (to help rid the body of excess fluid), an astringent (to control bleeding and help heal wounds), and to improve heart health. Other uses of green tea include treating gas, regulating body temperature and blood sugar, promoting digestion, and improving mental stimulation. Green tea has been extensively studied in people, animals, and labs. Results from these studies suggest green tea may help treat and/or prevent the following health conditions: Atherosclerosis High cholesterol Bladder cancer Breast cancer Ovarian cancer Colorectal cancer Esophageal cancer Lung cancer Pancreatic cancer Prostate cancer Skin cancer Stomach cancer Inflammatory Bowel Disease Diabetes Liver disease Weight loss REFERENCES: Baladia E, Basulto J, Manera M, Martinez R, Calbet D. Effect of green tea or green tea extract consumption on body weight and body composition: systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Hosp. 2014; 2993):479-90. Bettuzzi S, Brausi M, Rizzi F, Castagnetti G, Peracchia G, Corti A. Chemoprevention of human prostate cancer by oral administration of green tea catechins in volunteers with high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia: a preliminary report from a one-year proof-of-principle study. Cancer Res. 2006;66(2):1234-40. Cooper R, Morre DJ, Morre DM. Medicinal benefits of green tea: Part I. Review of noncancer health benefits. J Altern Complement Med. 2005;11(3):521-8. Fujita H, Yamagami T. Antihypercholesterolemic effect of Chinese black tea extract in human subjects with borderline hypercholesterolemia. Nutr Res. 2008;28(7):450-6. Fukino Y, Ikeda A, Maruyama K, Aoki N, Okubo T, Iso H. Randomized controlled trial for an effect of green tea-extract powder supplementation on glucose abnormalities. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007. Gross G, Meyer KG, Pres H, Thielert C, Tawfik H, Mescheder A. A randomized, double-blind, four-arm parallel-group, placebo-controlled Phase II/III study to investigate the clinical efficacy of two g

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alternating dumbbell step ups —-> for the booty Scientists have confirmed what most people in the fitness industry already knew – the holy grail! It is possible to burn fat and gain muscle concurrently. While it proves to be a difficult feat, it’s not impossible. A study looked at 40 young men who underwent a month of hard exercise while their normal energy requirement was cut by 40 percent. The researchers divided their subjects into two groups. Both groups went on a low calorie diet, one with higher levels of protein than the other. The higher-protein group experienced muscle gains of approximately 2.5 pounds despite consuming insufficient energy, while the lower protein group did not gain muscle. The lower-protein group had the consolation of not losing muscle which is a predictable outcome of cutting calories and not working out. Weight lifting allows muscle to be retained even when one is in a state of caloric deficit. The results showed the high-protein group lost about 10.5 pounds and the low protein group only eight pounds. All of the participants, however, got stronger, fitter, and generally were in much better shape. Reference: T. Longland, et al. Higher compared with lower dietary protein during an energy deficit combined with intense exercise promotes greater lean mass gain and fat mass loss: a randomized trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, January 2016.

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Lower ab stability ball work. Metabolic compensation is essentially when one’s body reaches a weight loss plateau. It’s when one’s body adapts to its current eating and training regime and starts to rebound. Cardio is an important aspect in most training programs. Too much cardio can be detrimental, however. If too much cardio is done, muscle mass will be stripped away causing hunger and cravings. Less lean muscle mass results in a lower BMR (a lower BMR means you burn fewer calories at rest). I’m don’t know about you, but I’d like to burn as many calories at rest that I can! Studies show high training endurance cardio raises cortisol levels (a hormone the body releases). High cortisol levels will halt tissue growth (or muscle growth). But cardio in moderation is will not kill a metabolism and if done in conjunction with a weight lifting program will speed up results for most. A recent study looked at a group of obese individuals who were put on a 800 calorie per day diet. One group was assigned aerobic exercise, and the other group was assigned resistance training. Both groups lost weight over a period of 12 weeks, but the resistance training group increased their sitting BMR on average 63 calories per day whereas the aerobic group decreased their BMR by 210 calories per day. Weight training will not only make you look toned and sexy, but will also help you stay lean. References: Bryner RW, Ullrich IH, Sauers J, Donley D, Hornsby G, Kolar M, Yeater R. Effects of resistance vs. aerobic training combined with an 800 calorie liquid diet on lean body mass and resting metabolic rate. J Am Coll Nutr. 1999 Apr;18(2):115-21. Grandys M, Majerczak J, Duda K, Zapart-Bukowska J, Kulpa J, Zoladz JA. Endurance training of moderate intensity increases testosterone concentration in young, healthy men. Int J Sports Med. 2009 Jul;30(7):489-95. doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1202340. Epub 2009 Mar 19.

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